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about labanotation: turning

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Turns are indicated by a parallelogram whose sloping sides show the turn direction, as shown in figure 10.

About labanotation: the parallelograms that indicate the direction of turn.
Figure 10: The parallelograms that indicate the direction of turn.

When the body rotates in its entirety, the symbol for the correct turn direction is placed in the support column. If a turn is made on one leg then the symbol is in the support column of that side (Figure 11 (a)). If a turn is made on two legs, the symbol is stretched out over the two support columns (figure 11 (b))

About labanotation: A turn on the right leg in 
								clockwise direction and on two legs anticlockwise.
Figure 11: (a) A turn on the right leg in clockwise direction and (b) on two legs anticlockwise.

A black pin in the turn symbol shows the angle of the turn to be made. The forward direction that applies before the turn has to be imagined as a vertical line just like the dotted line in Figure 12. The angle, in the turn direction, between this vertical dotted line and the pin is the degree of turn.

About labanotation: Notation of the degree of turn to the left and to the right.
Figure 12: The degree of turn (a) to the left (b) and to the right.

In the Standard Coordinate System, above and below are constant, but the directions in the horizontal plane turn with the mover. After the turn the forward direction is no longer the same as before. At least not if you consider it in relation to a coordinate system linked to the space in which the mover finds himself. This sort of coordinate system is called a Constant Coordinate System. Onstage, one often opts for the direction facing the audience as the constant direction.

An indication of how the forward direction of the dancer (according to the Standard Coordinate System) relates to the forward direction defined in space (that of the Constant Coordinate System) is normally indicated at the beginning of the notation. A straight pin in a square is used (figure 13).

About labanotation: relationship between standard forward and constant forward.
Figure 13: Representation of the relationship between standard forward and constant forward.

In figure 14 (a) the format of figure 9 (b) is repeated, but it is now shown how standard forward relates to constant forward. If the mover executes the forward movement in the notation, he will move diagonally forward left in the constant coordinate system. On the floor plan of figure 14 (b) the mover is indicated by the black pin, the arrow represents the path that he follows.

About labanotation: de verhouding tussen standaard 
								voor en constant voor in de notatie en de 
								weergave ervan op een vloerplan.
Figure 14: (a) Representation of the relationship between standard forward and constant forward in the notation and (b) how it is shown on a floor plan.

In principle it is sufficient to give the ratio of the Standard Coordinate System to the Constant at the beginning of the notation. One can deduce from the sizes of successive turns how the Standard Coordinate System changes. Since, after several turns, this requires a great deal of deduction, a straight pin is usually placed after each turn so that the reader can see the orientation in the Constant Coordinate System at a glance (figure 15).

About labanotation: the notation with a straight pin after each turn.
Figure 15: The notation with a straight pin after each turn.